A Classification of American Wealth
History and genealogy of the wealthy families of America - Sponsors

 Part 1 : Colonial and Mercantile America  Part 2 : America in the Gilded Age
 Part 3 : America in the Twentieth Century  Encyclopedia of American Wealth

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  Chronicles of American Wealth / Nr 31 / April 2007

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Content :

1  " Kings and Princes of Steel " extension of Chapter 11 - " Trusts "
2  New thematic list : “ U. S. Steel Masters (1901)
3   New feature : Google Search function added to "A Classification of American Wealth"



" Kings and Princes of Steel "
Extension of Chapter 11 - " Trusts "

If one should quote a product and an industry which more than any other symbolizes the industrial revolution of the Gilded Age, that would be steel. Its forerunner, iron, has marked human civilization since the ancient times and iron forges were quite familiar in Antebellum America, wherever the useful ore could be found. The Alleghenies, which cross Pennsylvania North to South and cover much of its territory, were rich in iron ore and even richer in coal deposits, which became more convenient than charcoal after the introduction of the anthracite blast furnace in the 1840s.

Thus, whilst there were blast furnaces and forges in every one of the thirteen original colonies except Georgia, the most industrialized region in America, as far as iron is concerned, was Southeastern Pennsylvania. Incidentally, the iron industry was quite developed in the American colonies by the time of the Revolution. In 1775, the region produced almost 1/7th of the world output of iron, up from a tiny 1/70th at the beginning of the 18th century and altogether more than England and Wales combined .

The colonial and antebellum iron works in America were organized on plantations or around small rural communities, more or less close to iron mines but always in the vicinity of the still abundant forests. Charcoal, preferably made from hardwood (hickory, oak, etc), was still the major fuel to heat the American furnaces well into the 19th century, while the British iron industry had already converted to coal and coke .

Only few of the colonial fortunes of America were based or significantly increased by iron works or mines though. The Livingston family’s Ancram iron works and their part ownership of the Salisbury mines contributed to the income of Livingston Manor. And both, Robert Carter III (the councilor) and Charles Carroll (III) of Carrolton (a signer of the Declaration of Independence) held substantial shares in the Baltimore Iron Works …

Continue reading at " Kings and Princes of Steel " , extension of Chapter 11 - " Trusts "  at
A Classification of American Wealth

Featuring 84 new pages treating :

Introduction ( 4 pages - free )
Rise of the Carnegie Steel Empire
            Andrew Carnegie : from an investment in iron to a kingdom in steel
( 14 pages )
            Henry Clay Frick : the consolidation of the Carnegie Steel Company
( 16 pages )
Consolidation in the steel industry
             Illinois Steel
( 7 pages )
             The Wire Trust (Gates)
( 12 pages )
             The Moore Brothers and the Tin Plate Kings
( 8 pages )
             J.P. Morgan’s hand : Federal Steel, National Tube and American Bridge
( 12 pages )
             Creation of the United States Steel Corporation
( 11 pages )


list : “ U. S. Steel Masters (1901)

Encyclopedia of American Wealth, the companion work to the online book, has just been enriched by a new thematic list entitled U.S. Steel Masters (1901). Although certainly not exhaustive, this is a listing of steel masters whose enterprises were in a way or another constituents of J. P. Morgan’s United States Steel Corporation.

The list contains just over a hundred US iron and steel industrialists whose plants were absorbed by the steel trusts at the turn of the Twentieth Century, before the latter themselves became the constituents of a much larger corporation. The main promoters of these trusts (eg Willam Henry and James H. Moore) as well as the U.S. Steel Corporation (J. Pierpont Morgan and his partners) have been included in this list, although from their activities they for the most investment bankers and stock brokers.

In a future update, this list will be extended to include the American iron and steel masters, whose enterprises were not included in the U. S. Steel Corporation at the time.

Browse the
new t
hematic list : “ U. S. Steel Masters (1901) or other wealth classification lists (1650 to 1950) and read more about the wealthy Americans and wealthy American families of the past at "Encyclopedia of American Wealth ".


Google Search function added to
"A Classification of American Wealth"

Following many requests to introduce a search function on the American Wealth web site, we have added a Google Search box in the footer of most AW pages. You can search the Web or limit your search to the www.raken.com (ie American Wealth) web site.

Please note that Google Search can only screen the content available to the general public. All text pages, individual and family profiles will thus be found but the ranking may not be the most accurate in relation to the overall content of these pages (ie the part reserved to members).

The wealth classification lists will not appear in the listings for search queries on specific individuals or families (names), as the latter are in all but two cases reserved to subscribers.

Logged members can find the relevant pages with Google Search and will get full access when clicking on the links in the search result page.

Please note that Google Search applies to the whole of the www.raken.com
web site. Thus, unspecific search queries (eg "iron industry") may produce links from other parts of the RAKEN domain than "A Classification of American Wealth". Name queries (eg "Cornelius Vanderbilt") will produce more targeted results.

Also, Google advertisements will appear in the top and bottom section of certain search result pages. Again, the less specific search queries will yield the most unspecific ads. Name queries generally produce no advertisements.

The Google Search function is introduced on an experimental basis and may be removed if necessary. As with other links, the author and RAKEN Services do not endorse search result links or advertisements, nor take any responsibility for the content of the underlying pages. Safe Search has been defined by default to assure reasonable results for "Web" searches.

We hope you will find this new feature helpful.

hank you for your
interest. Enjoy reading.

D. C. Shouter
April 2007 


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