Princes of Steel " extension of Chapter 11 - "
thematic list : “
U. S. Steel
New feature : Google Search function added to "A Classification of
and Princes of Steel "
of Chapter 11 - "
If one should quote a product and an industry which more
than any other symbolizes the industrial revolution of the Gilded Age,
that would be steel. Its forerunner, iron, has marked human civilization
since the ancient times and iron forges were quite familiar in
Antebellum America, wherever the useful ore could be found. The
Alleghenies, which cross Pennsylvania North to South and cover much of
its territory, were rich in iron ore and even richer in coal deposits,
which became more convenient than charcoal after the introduction of the
anthracite blast furnace in the 1840s.
Thus, whilst there were blast furnaces and forges in every one of the
thirteen original colonies except Georgia, the most industrialized
region in America, as far as iron is concerned, was Southeastern
Pennsylvania. Incidentally, the iron industry was quite developed in the
American colonies by the time of the Revolution. In 1775, the region
produced almost 1/7th of the world output of iron, up from a tiny 1/70th
at the beginning of the 18th century and altogether more than England
and Wales combined .
The colonial and antebellum iron works in America were organized on
plantations or around small rural communities, more or less close to
iron mines but always in the vicinity of the still abundant forests.
Charcoal, preferably made from hardwood (hickory, oak, etc), was still
the major fuel to heat the American furnaces well into the 19th century,
while the British iron industry had already converted to coal and coke .
Only few of the colonial fortunes of America were based or significantly
increased by iron works or mines though. The Livingston family’s Ancram
iron works and their part ownership of the Salisbury mines contributed
to the income of Livingston Manor. And both, Robert Carter III (the
councilor) and Charles Carroll (III) of Carrolton (a signer of the
Declaration of Independence) held substantial shares in the Baltimore
Iron Works …
and Princes of Steel "
extension of Chapter 11 - "
“ A Classification of
American Wealth “
Featuring 84 new pages treating :
4 pages - free )
Rise of the Carnegie Steel Empire
Andrew Carnegie : from an investment in iron to a kingdom in
14 pages )
Henry Clay Frick : the consolidation of the Carnegie Steel
16 pages )
Consolidation in the steel industry
7 pages )
The Wire Trust (Gates)
12 pages )
The Moore Brothers and the Tin Plate Kings
8 pages )
J.P. Morgan’s hand : Federal Steel, National Tube and
12 pages )
Creation of the United States Steel Corporation
11 pages )
Thematic list : “
S. Steel Masters
Encyclopedia of American Wealth, the companion
work to the online book, has just been enriched by a new thematic list
entitled U.S. Steel Masters (1901). Although certainly not exhaustive,
this is a listing of steel masters whose enterprises were in a way or
another constituents of J. P. Morgan’s United States Steel Corporation.
The list contains just over a hundred US iron and
steel industrialists whose plants were absorbed by the steel trusts at
the turn of the Twentieth Century, before the latter themselves became
the constituents of a much larger corporation. The main promoters of
these trusts (eg Willam Henry and James H. Moore) as well as the U.S.
Steel Corporation (J. Pierpont Morgan and his partners) have been
included in this list, although from their activities they for the most
investment bankers and stock brokers.
In a future update, this list will be extended to
include the American iron and steel masters, whose enterprises were not
included in the U. S. Steel Corporation at the time.
new thematic list : “
U. S. Steel
(1901) ” or other wealth classification lists
(1650 to 1950) and read more about the wealthy Americans and wealthy
American families of the past at
"Encyclopedia of American Wealth
Google Search function added to
"A Classification of American Wealth"
Following many requests to introduce a search
function on the American Wealth web site, we have added a Google Search
box in the footer of most AW pages. You can search the Web or limit your
search to the www.raken.com (ie American Wealth) web site.
Please note that Google Search can only screen the
content available to the general public. All text pages, individual and
family profiles will thus be found but the ranking may not be the most
accurate in relation to the overall content of these pages (ie the part
reserved to members).
The wealth classification lists will not appear in
the listings for search queries on specific individuals or families
(names), as the latter are in all but two cases reserved to subscribers.
Logged members can find the relevant pages with
Google Search and will get full access when clicking on the links in the
search result page.
Please note that Google Search applies to the whole
web site. Thus, unspecific search queries (eg "iron industry") may produce
links from other parts of the RAKEN domain than "A
Classification of American Wealth". Name queries (eg
"Cornelius Vanderbilt") will produce more targeted results.
Also, Google advertisements will appear in the top
and bottom section of certain search result pages. Again, the less
specific search queries will yield the most unspecific ads. Name queries
generally produce no advertisements.
The Google Search function is introduced on an
experimental basis and may be removed if necessary. As with other links,
the author and RAKEN Services do not endorse search result links or
advertisements, nor take any responsibility for the content of the
underlying pages. Safe Search has been defined by default to assure
reasonable results for "Web" searches.
We hope you will find this new feature helpful.
Thank you for your interest. Enjoy reading.
D. C. Shouter